Native Phonetic Inventory: kikongo

These are the sounds found in most native kikongo dialects: There are also sounds not on the chart, shown below.

other sounds: labio-velar central approximant [w]; obstruents have pre-nasalized and non-prenasalized counterparts (excluding voiceless bilabial and voiced velar stops which are always pre-nasalized, and the alveolar lateral fricative which is never pre-nasalized); pre-nasalized voiceless stops are aspirated; non-pre-nasalized /p/ occurs in words of foreign origin.

Adapted from: Holm, J. (1988); Meinhof, C. (1932)